The struggle to respond to the current Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the second most lethal in history, illustrates the challenge. How, then, should U. This article describes the potential for expanded U. Saving lives is a worthy goal in itself.
The wellbeing of Americans is also inextricably connected with that of people around the world. The oft-repeated reality that diseases know no borders reveals why an approach rooted in international solidarity and multilateralism is needed. We propose a focus on three synergistic areas related to pandemics:. We focus here on pandemics—epidemics of infectious disease affecting a wide geographic area and large numbers of people, and crossing international borders.
In addition, infectious diseases drive global inequality. Despite increasing mortality from non-communicable diseases, people living in poverty continue to die in large numbers from infectious diseases. Experts agree it is not a question of if, but when, the next major pandemic will occur. The focus here is on U.
We note, however, that efforts by the U. The global economic impact in lost productivity due to infectious disease is then calculated for low- and middle-income countries LMICs , including fast growing economies and key U. We also describe estimates of economic return to U. Together, there is strong evidence that U. The diseases killed nearly 3 million people last year. The U. These have augmented domestic financing to achieve results once considered impossible. Yet progress is slipping as growing pandemics have been met with flat or reduced funding.
Malaria is on the rise globally and declines in TB have been far smaller than hoped. First, funding is key. Recent U. Growing pandemics require increased resources. Key innovations, from new TB treatments, to combination HIV prevention, to community case management for malaria could be scaled immediately, but lack resources. Second, increased multilateralism is needed.
The UN, Global Fund, and other institutions provide necessary leverage for inter-governmental and civil society collaboration, making bilateral programs like PEPFAR far more effective, but need a greater share of U. Third, active U. Criminalization of same-sex relationships, for example, is a major barrier to addressing HIV. Since the West Africa Ebola epidemic, the WHO, the National Academy of Medicine and others have pointed to the major gaps in ensuring all countries can prevent, detect and respond to outbreaks.
Strengthening U. It has grown to over 60 member countries and marshalled extensive resources, including U. Progress, however, has been far too slow. There are promising examples.
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Climate change is already causing illnesses and deaths, with risks projected to increase as climate change progresses. Meanwhile, preparing for and responding to rising risks of pandemic diseases are a critical component of effective climate policy. Weather and climate affect the geographic range, seasonality, and intensity of vector-borne diseases. Severe storms and flooding linked to climate change in areas with poor infrastructure are likely to drive water-borne diseases like cholera—as seen in Mozambique recently.
Investments in early warning systems to predict outbreaks alongside multi-use laboratory capacity and human resources could create synergies across pandemic-related U. Second, U.
A growing number of studies document the economic costs of infectious disease, with the largest cost coming from current pandemics. Economic effects of disease start at the individual level. To estimate the productivity costs associated with morbidity and premature mortality due to infectious diseases in LMICs, we used an analytic framework used by the WHO.
That monetary value was imputed using GDP per capita minus the total health expenditure per capita in the country. We find that the losses of See annex 1 for more details on methods and country-level estimates. New outbreaks are particularly harmful and act as shocks to the economies affected. This is highly consistent with a consensus that has emerged about the importance of investing in human capital. To understand the U. Data were gathered from final, enacted appropriations bills.
We do not include, in this particular calculation, necessary investments in overall global health infrastructure, including to the National Institutes of Health and to child health, family planning funding, and other accounts. We also analyzed each presidential budget request from fiscal years to compared with the final enacted amounts. Little global health spending is used to address climate-sensitive disease, with no dedicated funding account though needed programs could be funded through existing mechanisms.
Figure 7 shows the substantial growth in funding during the Bush administration, with the launch of PEPFAR—illustrating the role of presidential leadership. In recent years, funding for these programs increased only incrementally.
Fair value accounting originated as a way of making financial statement numbers more timely and relevant, especially the values reported for tradable securities and the many new financial products developed in recent years to manage risk, such as hedges, forward contracts, futures, swaps, and options. The ACHA provisions that would restore Medicaid DSH payments beginning in and provide additional safety-net funding to nonexpansion states could improve margins for safety-net hospitals in these states between and relative to current law Exhibit 6. Premium Services Newsletters. With a market at record highs, these are the most loved stocks on Wall Street right now. There is already substantial financial pressure on rural hospitals; some 80 rural hospitals have closed or eliminated inpatient services since , and many more are vulnerable to closure. Deciding how and how much to pay is particularly challenging. However, this means that SMG is diversified and not dependent on the burgeoning sector.
In the first years of the Trump administration, the president has requested significantly less than Congress has appropriated Figure 8. This shows strong congressional support, but that only small increases have been politically feasible without White House leadership. As described above, the U.
Multiple works and commissions have explored or are now exploring the current architecture and future directions. First, health aid is particularly effective when it focuses on clear targets, gaps in capacity that other actors cannot fill, and a clear mission. Second, there is a set of cross-cutting areas where the U.
Health workforce is key, with a current shortage to reach international goals projected at 14 million workers by Third, a more multilateral approach has the potential to increase U. The Global Fund is a good example where U. Nevertheless, despite the myriad headwinds, I believe marijuana stocks offer a compelling opportunity. Plus, during an economically sensitive time, we need more business growth, not less. That plays favorably into the hands of these 30 marijuana stocks to buy.
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